Amid the tense political atmosphere in Bihar, Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) chief Lalu Prasad has called a meeting of party legislators on Monday, while alliance partner Janata Dal (United) has called a meeting of its core committee on Tuesday.The Opposition BJP, for its part, has appealed to RJD and JD(U) MLAs to pressure their party leaders to seek the resignation of Mr. Prasad’s son, Deputy Chief Minister Tejaswi Yadav, in the wake of the CBI booking him for alleged corruption in the award of a contract for managing two railway hotels.Nitish silentBihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar returned to Patna on Sunday afternoon, after three days in Rajgir, and drove straight to his 1 Anne Marg residence. He did not speak to the media.Mr. Kumar and his party leaders have been maintaining a stoic silence on the CBI raids on Mr. Prasad’s premises and the charge sheet filed against Rabri Devi and Mr. Tejaswi Yadav in connection with the railway hotels scam.The “image conscious” Chief Minister was expected to take a decision on Mr. Tejaswi Yadav after reaching Patna. But that did not happen. Mr. Kumar has also cancelled his weekly Lok Samvad programme on Monday due to “ill-health”.Mr. Prasad has been meeting senior party leaders and legal advisers at his 10 Circular Road residence for the past two days.Legal advisersParty sources said he spoke to eminent lawyer and party’s Rajya Sabha member Ram Jethmalani twice.Party leaders coming out after meeting the RJD chief said they would not be cowed down by the BJP’s political vendetta. Party sources told The Hindu that the RJD chief had identified another member for Deputy Chief Minister should Mr. Tejaswi Yadav need to be replaced.Not to quitNames of State Finance Minister Abdul Bari Siddiqui, Lalit Yadav, MLA, and Mr. Prasad’s elder son, Health Minister Tej Pratap Yadav, came up at the closed-door meeting with some top party leaders. However, party insiders said neither Mr. Tejaswi Yadav nor any of the family members favoured his resignation.Meanwhile, senior State BJP leader Sushil Kumar Modi told presspersons that he was appealing to all RJD and JD(U) MLAs to demand the resignation of Mr. Tejaswi Yadav.The party’s leaders have been holding meetings for the last two days to discuss the fast changing political situation. Top State BJP leaders asked legislators on Sunday to gear up for a possible mid-term poll.
Phelps overjoyed to announce new baby John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles02:25PH women’s volleyball team motivated to deliver in front of hometown crowd01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City LATEST STORIES AFP official booed out of forum Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH “It feels good, because last year was really tough for us and only winning one game it was hard so getting our second win, we’ve already our record and it feels good,” said Padda. “It shows that there’s been growth in the program and our team is not a pushover from last year.”Although the Lady Maroons managed to go hit-for-hit with the Lady Falcons in the second and third sets, the same can’t be said for the opening set when Adamson looked flawless.Adamson tallied eight service aces in the first set alone, and that mark was two more than UP scored in spikes.“That first set really hurt UP and our passing was really good,” said Padda as her team finished with 17 aces. “I’m surprised we got 17 aces, our team’s growing. And if we had to define us, I won’t define us as a strong serving team, we’re a strong defensive team.”Adamson outgunned UP, 40-26, in terms of spikes and was ahead 53-39 in excellent digs.ADVERTISEMENT Globe Business launches leading cloud-enabled and hardware-agnostic conferencing platform in PH NEXT BLOCK ASIA 2.0 introduces GURUS AWARDS to recognize and reward industry influencers Read Next Mylene Paat led Adamson with 15 points, eight coming off aces, while Galanza added 14.Mary Joy Dacoron and Chiara Permentilla also finished in double figures with 11 and 10 points, respectively.Carlos led UP with 12 points while Isa Molde added seven. Adamson wasted no time and handed University of the Philippines its second straight loss, 25-9, 27-25, 25-20, victory in the UAAP Season 80 women’s volleyball tournament Wednesday at Filoil Flying V Centre.ADVERTISEMENT Slow and steady hope for near-extinct Bangladesh tortoises MOST READ Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC 2 ‘newbie’ drug pushers fall in Lucena sting The Lady Falcons soared to their second straight win for a 2-1 card, already eclipsing their one-win total from Season 79, while the Lady Maroons slipped to their second straight loss and a 1-2 record.With the Lady Falcons leading two sets to none and 23-18 in the third, Diana Carlos managed to score two straight points to cut the margin to three, 23-20, and give UP a semblance of fight.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutCarlos’ back-to-back hits prompted Adamson head coach Air Padda to call time, and Jema Galanza calmed her mentor down with a pinpoint kill that went through UP’s defense and put the Lady Falcons at the 24-20 match point.UP’s Marian Buitre then gave Adamson the win when she failed to get the ball over from her side of the floor. Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View comments
MONTREAL — Health officials in Quebec have discovered that a woman who had been working as a nurse and caring for hospital patients for 20 years was an impostor.The health authority in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of eastern Quebec fired the woman this month from her position at the hospital in Jonquiere.The health authority said the woman managed to get hired and keep her job by providing the nursing license number of someone with the same name.Her ploy was discovered a few weeks ago when she enrolled in a training course. An official noticed that the age listed on her license number did not match up with her actual age.She was immediately suspended pending an investigation, which led to her dismissal.Before being exposed, the woman had worked in several departments of the hospital, including the operating room.The Canadian Press
REGINA – Saskatchewan says it will not be joining Alberta in banning the import of British Columbia wines.Alberta Premier Rachel Notley announced the ban on Tuesday as the next step in an ongoing dispute with B.C. over the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion.In a statement on Facebook, Saskatchewan Premier Scott Moe says that while his province supports Alberta in its fight, he doesn’t think the dispute will be solved by trade measures that have an impact on consumers and private businesses.B.C. has said it is considering rules to limit any increase in the shipping of diluted bitumen until an independent panel can better analyze whether the system is safe and can adequately deal with a spill.The Trans Mountain project has already been approved by Ottawa and Notley sees B.C.’s move as a back-door way to scuttle the expansion.The $7.4-billion Kinder Morgan project would triple capacity on the 1,150-kilometre line, which runs from Edmonton to the B.C. coast.Moe suggests that rather than boycott B.C. wine, Saskatchewan will look at options either through the courts or interprovincial trade agreements.“It is our position that the government of British Columbia has no legal jurisdiction or justification to delay or impede the construction of the Trans Mountain pipeline,” he said.“While we have previously stated that Saskatchewan will support Alberta in defending against this attack on our energy industry, Saskatchewan has no plans to participate in retaliatory measures that would be in contravention of our trade commitments.“We do not believe this matter will be resolved by trade measures that will primarily impact consumers and private businesses.”(Companies in this story: TSX:KML)
TRAVERSE CITY, Mich. — The Latest on a Michigan panel’s consideration of a proposal to allow construction of an oil pipeline tunnel beneath the waterway linking Lakes Huron and Michigan (all times local):5:10 p.m.A plan to build an oil pipeline tunnel beneath a channel linking Lakes Huron and Michigan has won final approval.One week after it was established, a Michigan panel approved an agreement between outgoing Republican Gov. Rick Snyder’s administration and the Canadian pipeline company Enbridge. It calls for drilling the 4-mile (6.4 kilometre) tunnel through bedrock under the Straits of Mackinac.The new pipeline segment will replace twin pipes along the lake bed. They are part of Enbridge’s Line 5. The pipeline carries oil and natural gas liquids between Superior, Wisconsin, and Sarnia, Ontario.The unanimous approval from the three-member Mackinac Straits Corridor Authority accomplishes Snyder’s goal of sealing the deal before leaving office this month. His successor, Democrat Gretchen Whitmer, has criticized the tunnel plan.___8:50 a.m.A recently established state panel in Michigan could give final approval to a proposed oil pipeline tunnel beneath a crucial section of the Great Lakes.The Mackinac Straits Corridor Authority is scheduled to meet for the first time Wednesday in St. Ignace.The three-member panel is expected to consider recent agreements between Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder’s administration and Enbridge Inc. The Canadian company wants to drill a tunnel through bedrock under the straits area connecting Lake Huron and Lake Michigan.The tunnel would hold a new section of Enbridge’s Line 5, which carries oil and natural gas liquids between Superior, Wisconsin, and Sarnia, Ontario.It would replace a more than 4-mile-long (6.4-kilometre-long) dual segment of pipe that runs along the lakebed.Environmental groups oppose the tunnel and want Line 5 shut down.The Associated Press
New Delhi: Congress President Rahul Gandhi Sunday said if voted to power, his party will introduce a single-window system for education loans and bring a law that will “list the rights and duties of students”.In a Facebook post, Gandhi asserted that a Congress government will ensure free education to all students from Class 1 to 12 in government schools in the country. He said the Congress will restore the independence and autonomy of colleges and universities and will open new state-run varsities in backward areas of the country to ensure the expansion of the education sector. “The Congress will restore the independence and autonomy of colleges and universities and will open new state-run varsities in backward areas of the country to ensure expansion of education. “The Congress will also bring ‘Student Rights Law’ that will list the rights and duties of students,” he said in a Facebook post. “We feel that education empowers a child and it should be made available to all children. “The Congress promises to ensure free and compulsory education to all in government schools from Class 1 to 12. We will raise the budget on education to 6 per cent of GDP,” he said in another post. Gandhi said a Congress government will waive outstanding interest on old education loans prior to March 31, 2019. “We will also introduce a single-window system for grant of education loans. The banks will not charge any interest on loans till the time the student gets a job and starts earning or becomes self-employed,” he added.
New Delhi: India cricketers Hardik Pandya and K L Rahul were on Saturday fined Rs 20 lakh each by the BCCI Ombudsman D K Jain for their sexist comments on a popular TV show. In the order published on the official BCCI website, Jain wrote that no further action will be taken against Pandya and Rahul, who have already served a provisional suspension and tendered an unconditional apology for their loose comments on women. Instead, he directed the World Cup bound players to play a fine of Rs 20 lakh each that included a payment of Rs 1 lakh each to “each of the most deserving widows of ten constables in para-military forces who have lost their lives while on duty, through ‘Bharat Ke Veer App”. Jain also instructed them to deposit Rs 10 lakh each in the fund “created by the Cricket Association for the blind”. All payments are to be made within four weeks from the date of the order — April 19, 2019. The Supreme Court-appointed Ombudsman had issued notices to Pandya and Rahul earlier this month to appear for deposition for their controversial comments on Koffee with Karan’. Pandya and Rahul were provisionally suspended by the Committee of Administrators (COA) for their remarks before the suspension was lifted pending an inquiry by the Ombudsman. Both players became subjects of nationwide criticism following their remarks on women. The controversial episode was aired in the first week of January, triggering outrage, which prompted the COA to call the duo back from the tour of Australia, handing them provisional suspensions. The two tendered unconditional apologies and their ban was provisionally lifted pending inquiry. Once Jain assumed his role, the COA handed over the matter to Ombudsman for the completion of inquiry. The two players have also spoken publicly on the incident, recalling one of the toughest phases of their respective careers.
Jürgen Klopp decided not to use three of his key players in the Merseyside derby as Mohamed Salah, Andrew Robertson and Roberto Firmino were not included into the starting eleven and the coach explained why.After the starting eleven had been revealed, the Liverpool fans started to worry about the fitness of their team’s crucial players but Jürgen Klopp insisted that he expects them all to be back for the match against City.The German coach spoke about the absence of this trio as he said that all of them will be available for the next game against Manchester City, according to Talk Sport:Report: Origi cause Klopp injury concerns George Patchias – September 14, 2019 Divock Origi injury in today’s game against Newcastle is a cause for concern for Jurgen Klopp.Perhaps with one eye on Tuesday’s trip to Italy…“Mo, he’s injured. I don’t think it is really serious and he can be available for Tuesday but for today he wasn’t available.“It’s the same with Andy Robertson.“Bobby’s out, he’s played a lot of games for us obviously and we have two fresh strikers there.”
Guingamp side had rejoiced believing that they had a second goal before the break in their game with PSG, but Nicolas Benezet’s header canceled as a result of a VAR review for a foul in the buildup.Guingamp boss Antoine Kombouare did not waste time to show his dissatisfaction saying as quoted in ESPN:“There are two disappointments. The first is the first half where we can return to the locker room with 2-0,” Guingamp boss said.“Afterwards, it’s up to the referee and we saw that it was against us.“And the second disappointment is to have [conceded] the goal too early. That they scored very quickly [after half-time], it gave us a blow on the head.PSG ultras sent a warning letter to Neymar Manuel R. Medina – September 14, 2019 Brazilian superstar Neymar might play today his first game of the season for Paris Saint-Germain and the team’s ultras have warned him.“And after, what we can see is that we had given a lot in the first half, we left a lot of strength, and in the second half with their mastery, offensively it hurt us very much and they could do what it takes to score three goals.”Guingamp president Bertrand Desplat on his own showed his dissatisfaction at the VAR decision, saying:“Above all, I’ll say it wasn’t a great night for video refereeing,”“You can see there’s an enormous amount of progress to be made and French refereeing will have to get quickly up to speed, because you can’t ruin great evenings like this.”
The agent of Jorginho insists that his client is enjoying his Chelsea “adventure” and is surprised by the club’s Neapolitan fanbaseThe Italian midfielder has settled in well at Stamford Bridge and has proved to be a valuable alley for his new teammates as they adapt to new manager Maurizio Sarri’s playing style.And his agent, Joao Santos, feels that the move to Chelsea has been a success so far.“Jorginho has started his adventure at Chelsea very well,” he told Radio CRC, via Football-Italia.“He’s already integrated himself, plus he also speaks English well, so he’s not having any problems settling.Chelsea hat-trick hero Tammy Abraham hopes for more Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Tammy Abraham hopes this season will be his big breakthrough at Chelsea after firing his first hat-trick for the club in Saturday’s 5-2 win at Wolves.“When a player is good, he can play in any League. Stereotypes matter little. If a player has quality, they can make the grade anywhere.”Santos also revealed that 50 Neapolitans greeted Jorginho at the end of Chelsea’s 3-2 win over Arsenal in Saturday’s London derby.“He’s very happy with how the match against Arsenal went. There were 50 Neapolitans who cheered him on and asked for photos and autographs,” he said.“This is why we love Naples and we’ll continue to. Their support has continued in London. Jorginho has many friends in Naples, like Mertens and Insigne.“He heard from them after Napoli’s win against Lazio and complimented the team.”
Riva Ganguly. Photo: UNBIndian high commissioner to Bangladesh, Riva Ganguly Das, visited the under-construction Bangladesh-India Maitree Bridge-1 and Ramgarh land port in Khagrachhari on Sunday.While visiting the sites Riva Ganguli said, “Maitree Bridge and land port will increase scopes of business besides developing inter-communication.”Khagrachari Hill District Council Chairman Kongjari Chowdhury, deputy commissioner Md Shahidul Islam, additional police super M M Salauddin, Ramgarh upazila chairman Bishwa Pradip Kumar Karbari, zilla parishad member Mongshui Pru and Jewel Chakma among other were present.Indian prime minister Narendra Modi and Bangladesh prime minister Sheikh Hasina jointly laid the foundation stone of India-Bangladesh Maitree Bridge over Feni River remotely through video conferencing in 2015.The bridge will connect Sabroom, a border town in southern Tripura with Ramgarh in Bangladesh. The construction is supposed to be completed by April 2020.On the other hand land acquisition for the construction of terminal, offices, depot and other infrastructures is nearly complete.
Rescued migrants sit on the coast of Khoms, some 100 kilometres (60 miles) from Tripoli, on 26 July 2019. Photo: AFPAbout 115 people are missing and feared to have drowned and another 134 were rescued by Libyan coast guards and local fishermen after a wooden boat carrying migrants capsized off Libya, a Libyan navy official said on Thursday.Earlier, the UN refugee agency UNHCR said that up to 150 people were feared dead.”The worst Mediterranean tragedy of this year has just occurred,” UNHCR head Filippo Grandi said in a tweet.There were about 250 people on board, mainly from Eritrea and other sub-Saharan Africa and Arab countries, when the boat capsized off the coast near Komas, east of the capital Tripoli, Libyan navy spokesman Ayoub Qassem said.Libya is a hub for migrants and refugees, many of whom try to reach Europe in unseaworthy boats.The latest shipwreck takes the death toll of Mediterranean migrants to over 600 this year, putting 2019 on track to be the sixth year in a row with more than 1,000 deaths, UNHCR spokesman Charlie Yaxley said.”Until we address the reasons why people take these dangerous boat journeys, sadly, this is unlikely to be the last tragedy like this that we see,” he said.Yaxley said survivors of the wreck were likely to be brought to two detention centres in Libya where they would face further risks, and he called for their immediate release.Rescued migrants sit on the coast of Khoms, some 100 kilometres (60 miles) from Tripoli, on 26 July 2019. Photo: AFP”We know that inside these detention centres there’s insufficient food, water, often unsanitary conditions, there have been widespread reports of human rights violations taking place,” he said.Libya says the migrants are illegally entering and leaving the country. It regularly detains them in centres that the UN says are effectively jails, exposing them to the added risk of being caught up in the country’s civil war.One detention centre in Tripoli was hit by an air strike earlier this month, killing more than 50 people. UNHCR subsequently said it had been closed, but rescued migrants have continued to be sent there.Human rights activists have accused politicians in the European Union of turning a blind eye and letting people die rather than risk a voter backlash by appearing soft on immigration. Europe struggled to cope with an influx of more than one million refugees and migrants in 2015.Italy, many African migrants’ intended first destination, has taken a tough line since a populist government took office in 2018, and immediately sought to close the nation’s ports to rescued migrants.
(PhysOrg.com) — Two research groups working independently have come up with two different ways to use whole-genome sequencing to follow the path bacteria take in developing resistance to anti-bacterial drugs. Such research could prove useful in figuring out ways to stop the evolutionary process, thereby safeguarding current anti-bacterial agents for future patients. Both groups have published papers describing their work in Nature Genetics. The first group has found a way to actually monitor the evolution of the E. coli bacteria over several generations as it’s exposed to three types of anti-bacterial agents. The second group has figured out a way to follow mutations in bacteria that occur after anti-bacterial agents have been discontinued. More information:  Whole-genome sequencing of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains identifies compensatory mutations in RNA polymerase genes, Nature Genetics (2011) doi:10.1038/ng.1038AbstractEpidemics of drug-resistant bacteria emerge worldwide, even as resistant strains frequently have reduced fitness compared to their drug-susceptible counterparts. Data from model systems suggest that the fitness cost of antimicrobial resistance can be reduced by compensatory mutations; however, there is limited evidence that compensatory evolution has any significant role in the success of drug-resistant bacteria in human populations. Here we describe a set of compensatory mutations in the RNA polymerase genes of rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of human tuberculosis (TB). M. tuberculosis strains harboring these compensatory mutations showed a high competitive fitness in vitro. Moreover, these mutations were associated with high fitness in vivo, as determined by examining their relative clinical frequency across patient populations. Of note, in countries with the world’s highest incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, more than 30% of MDR clinical isolates had this form of mutation. Our findings support a role for compensatory evolution in the global epidemics of MDR TB.Evolutionary paths to antibiotic resistance under dynamically sustained drug selection, Nature Genetics (2011) doi:10.1038/ng.1034AbstractAntibiotic resistance can evolve through the sequential accumulation of multiple mutations. To study such gradual evolution, we developed a selection device, the ‘morbidostat’, that continuously monitors bacterial growth and dynamically regulates drug concentrations, such that the evolving population is constantly challenged. We analyzed the evolution of resistance in Escherichia coli under selection with single drugs, including chloramphenicol, doxycycline and trimethoprim. Over a period of ~20 days, resistance levels increased dramatically, with parallel populations showing similar phenotypic trajectories. Whole-genome sequencing of the evolved strains identified mutations both specific to resistance to a particular drug and shared in resistance to multiple drugs. Chloramphenicol and doxycycline resistance evolved smoothly through diverse combinations of mutations in genes involved in translation, transcription and transport. In contrast, trimethoprim resistance evolved in a stepwise manner, through mutations restricted to the gene encoding the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Sequencing of DHFR over the time course of the experiment showed that parallel populations evolved similar mutations and acquired them in a similar order. Citation: Researchers use whole-genome sequencing to monitor evolution of drug resistance in bacteria (2011, December 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-12-whole-genome-sequencing-evolution-drug-resistance.html © 2011 PhysOrg.com Explore further The first group, all working out of Harvard University, created what they call a “morbidostat”; a computer controlled environment that reads signs from a bacteria culture to asses its degree of happiness with its surroundings, then tweaks it just a little bit to make it unhappy. Bacteria that are happy don’t need to adapt, thus, to cause them to evolve, three types of antibacterial agents were introduced into the morbidostat along with the bacteria: chloramphenicol, doxycyclin, and trimethoprim. To see what evolutionary changes were occurring, the team took regular samples and studied them using whole-genome sequencing. Using this technique the team found they could actually watch the bacteria evolve into resistant strains. But of particular note, they found that at least when exposed to trimethoprim, Escherichia coli evolves in very predictable ways, a bit of knowledge that could help doctors stay one step ahead of such changes when treating patients by predicting them before they are able to occur.Just as interesting is the study undertaken by the second group; a team made up of an international group of researchers. Here the team wanted to know what goes on with bacteria that are subjected to anti-bacterial agents, after the treatment is stopped. Do they stop evolving, or do they keep on doing so as a means of responding to the effects of the drugs?Prior research has already shown that most often drug-resistant bacteria for some reason don’t grow as quickly as those that aren’t resistant when in an environment free of antibiotics, which should mean resistant strains should have transmission rates that are lower. Unfortunately, this is not always the case as some resistant strains of some types of bacteria have shown an ability to transmit just as quickly as their non-resistant brethren. To find out why this is, the team analyzed both types of strains using whole-genome sequencing to find out exactly what was going with different strains of M. tuberculosis.The team found that those strains that were both resistant and able to transmit at the same rates as the non-resistant group had developed two types of mutations. The first was, obviously, the changes that had come about that had made them resistant. The second change was the surprise; the bacteria samples had actually evolved in a way that allowed them to regain a high transmission rate, which showed they had continued to evolve after the anti-bacterial drug had been stopped, this time, to get back something it had lost due to the drug.Taken together, the studies show that by using whole-genome sequencing, researchers are moving ever closer to fully understanding how bacteria mutate and evolve to make themselves resistant to anti-bacterial agents. The hope is that once the entire process is fully understood, new ways to prevent it from happening can be developed. Drug-resistant bacteria can be controlled This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: Near-Field Electromagnetic Theory for Thin Solar Cells, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 138701 (2012) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.138701AbstractCurrent methods for evaluating solar cell efficiencies cannot be applied to low-dimensional structures where phenomena from the realm of near-field optics prevail. We present a theoretical approach to analyze solar cell performance by allowing rigorous electromagnetic calculations of the emission rate using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Our approach shows the direct quantification of the voltage, current, and efficiency of low-dimensional solar cells. This approach is demonstrated by calculating the voltage and the efficiency of a GaAs slab solar cell for thicknesses from several microns down to a few nanometers. This example highlights the ability of the proposed approach to capture the role of optical near-field effects in solar cell performance.Physics Synopsis Explore further Citation: New theoretical technique applied to properties of ultrathin solar cells (2012, October 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-10-theoretical-technique-properties-ultrathin-solar.html © 2012 Phys.org Journal information: Physical Review Letters This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Cheap and efficient solar cell made possible by linked nanoparticles To start, the team describes the connection in solar cell technology between two states: thermal equilibrium and one where a disturbance has occurred. When in equilibrium, they say, many processes are occurring, most specifically those involving absorbing and emitting photons. To calculate a cell’s efficiency, its photocurrent (the rate of creation of electron-hole pairings) and recombination current (the rate of recombining of electron-hole pairs in making photons) must be known. In looking at the recombination events, the team found they were able to use the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (to connect the equilibrium state to the one where a small disturbance has occurred) to calculate the power involved as it applies to thermodynamic properties, e.g. chemical potential and temperature. Such calculations allowed them to then generate parameters for voltage, current, and efficiency for ultrathin solar cells based on an idealized cell made of gallium arsenide on a gold substrate. Using these parameters, the team then measured four emission channels of the idealized cell—two polarizations each of light that is emitted back into the air or the gold substrate. In so doing, the researchers were able to calculate the overall efficiency of the solar cell in advance of its actual construction. Such a discovery leads to the possibility of creating a simulator capable of providing such statistics to build new, more efficient solar cells based on ultrathin materials. In testing their calculations, the team found that while nanometer-sized structures do allow for taking advantage of near-field optical effects, their properties can also affect the rate at which electrons and holes combine, impacting overall efficiency. Consequently, this impact must be taken into consideration when developing real-world applications to prevent building in a negative efficiency factor. (Phys.org)—As solar cell technology matures, researchers continue to look for ways to develop ever-thinner technology to reduce material costs. Such technology also reduces the distance electrons and holes, loosened by light, have to travel—resulting in less loss when they recombine. However, using traditional materials means that less light is absorbed. As such, recent efforts have focused on using cells with nanometer-sized structures as they allow for the number of light interactions to be increased. However, researchers have been limited in their ability to predict the properties of solar cells when using such materials. Now researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, have developed a theoretical technique for calculating such properties. As they write in their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the technique lends itself to possible use in simulation tools.