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Nothing is a constant in scientific theories. Popular ideas often wind up historical anecdotes. What will happen to these two popular concepts?Snowball Earth Melts: The idea that prior to the emergence of complex life the Earth was frozen over has been given the colorful title, “Snowball Earth.” Scientists at Imperial College, London, are questioning whether this ever happened, according to EurekAlert. They claim to have found evidence of repeated hot and cold cycles that would not have allowed Earth to undergo a prolonged period of freezing. They also questioned it on thermodynamic grounds: “In fact, once fully frozen, it is difficult to create the right conditions to cause a thaw, since much of the incoming solar radiation would be reflected back by the snow and ice.” Antarctic rivers drain Antarctic lakes: Many scientists had speculated that lakes under Antarctic ice might hold pristine clues to the early Earth, and exotic forms of life. Now they may have to take into account a paper in Science1 that found evidence these lakes are connected and drain from one to another as the ice cover shifts. Images from space show that these lakes act like lubricants and rapidly shift the highly-pressurized subglacial ice around. They cited instances: “Large outbursts of subglacial water have been observed in coastal regions,” and “Antarctic subglacial water can move in large volumes between lakes, on short time scales and over long distances.” In conclusion, they remark that the water movements they detected are “large, extensive, and temporally variable.” Big changes were seen within just 2-3 years. “These observations provide clues to understanding the stability of ice streams through their sensitivity to basal lubrication,” they said. “The time scale for subglacial water transport (months to years) is short compared with that of other known drivers of glacial flow variability, suggesting a mechanism for more rapid changes in ice stream behavior than have previously been assumed.”It may be a hard sell, therefore, to claim that anything under the Antarctic remained stable for millions of years – or that we can know with any certainty what the Earth looked like before there were observers.1Fricker, Scambos, Bindschadler and Padman, “An Active Subglacial Water System in West Antarctica Mapped from Space,” Science, 16 March 2007: Vol. 315. no. 5818, pp. 1544-1548, DOI: 10.1126/science.1136897.Didn’t they ever hear of global warming? Indeed, the science wars are heating up all over the world.(Visited 6 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest 180307_RyanMartinCold air holds over Ohio today. Moisture kicked off late last evening and overnight will see some strengthening in the next 24 hours over Ohio. Today, we are cold enough to see mostly light snow and flurry action through the morning into early afternoon. We look for 70% coverage, and there is the potential for a coating to an inch or two of general accumulation, while north central and northeast parts of Ohio can see 2-5 inches due to lake effect and enhancement.Dry conditions move in tomorrow, but clouds will still cast a wide footprint across the state, with significant wrapping around the low that is moving off to the east. Temperatures struggle to break the lower 30s tomorrow and will only do a few degrees better for Friday over the northern half of the state. Down south, we can push toward the lower 40s tomorrow and maybe toward 50 on Friday. Sunshine is back for Friday as high pressure drifts through.Our next system is still on track for overnight Friday night into the start of the weekend. We are keeping I-70 as the delineation line for precipitation, with rains likely only south of there. We see precipitation breaking out early Saturday morning over the southwest areas of the state. The heaviest rains will be in far south central Ohio, near the river, where we can see up to a quarter of an inch. The rest of areas that see scattered showers will be more like a few hundredths to a tenth or to. The closer you get to I-70, the lesser chance of rain we have Saturday, and north of I-70, we should stay dry. Another surge of rain brings up to half an inch of moisture to southeast Ohio Sunday, but the rest of the state just features a mix of clouds and sun.Dry weather is expected for next week. Monday-Wednesday have been dry, and we are extending that through Friday the 16th. We still like a system for late the 16th into the 17th with minor moisture. Temperatures will moderate next week, and we should be back to normal and above normal levels. We continue to watch a system for the 20th and 21st, where we can see some rains of half to 1 inch at least. Strong southwest flow in the extended 11-16-day forecast window will lead to a slightly higher chance of stormy weather.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Matt Hutcheson, CCA, Product Manager, Seed Consultants, Inc.While scouting corn fields this spring, some farmers in the eastern Corn Belt may have noticed strange looking corn plants with new growth that was yellow and leaves that were wrinkled randomly spread throughout their field. This a phenomenon is referred to as “Rapid Growth Syndrome.” In many areas of our sales footprint weather conditions were such that our agronomists and sales staff observed plants affected by Rapid Growth Syndrome. Corn plants are usually affected by this issue is in the V5 to V6 stages of growth. This phenomenon is usually associated with an abrupt change in weather. Twisted whorls can appear when corn plants shift from a period of slow growth (in cool, cloudy weather) to more rapid growth (warm, sunny weather).Symptoms of Rapid Growth Syndrome include bent-over plants and tightly wrapped whorls that keep younger leaves from emerging. Once younger leaves emerge, they are often yellow but turn green after a few days. In one area Seed Consultants’ staff observed corn plants with leaves that were notched or shredded due to similar rapid growth conditions. This issue seemed more wide spread in 2016 because more areas were affected periods of cooler wet weather followed by warm weather that promoted rapid growth.The important question is, “Does Rapid Growth Syndrome diminish corn yields?” According to Bob Nielsen in his article Wrapped and Twisted Whorls in Corn, “Yield effects from periods of twisted growth caused by weather-related causes are minimal, if any.” Growers who observed twisted whorls and notched or wrinkled leaves in their corn fields this spring should keep in mind that plants will recover from this phenomenon and yields will not be significantly affected.
After a decades-long career in high-end, single-family renovation and construction, and a relatively new business providing consulting and certification services for the same market, I recently became involved in several multifamily projects. Starting with National Green Building Standard (NGBS) certification on a market-rate apartment building that was completed in 2010, I am now in the early stages of LEED certification for several affordable projects throughout the southeast.First off, let me say that it is very exciting to see how much affordable housing is being built to green home standards. It appears to me that between various incentives available, and housing authorities recognizing how sustainable building can positively affect the long-term value of their properties, that high-performance housing is well entrenched in this sector. This is reinforced by current statistics from LEED for Homes showing that over 50% of their certified units are in the affordable sector.So What’s The Problem?For those of you who follow my other posts on this site under the Green Curmudgeon banner, you must be thinking, “when will he start whining about something?” Patience, gentle readers, we will get there soon enough.It is always been interesting to me to compare different projects and how they score in various rating systems. Since most green building programs provide significant incentives for density and location in walkable communities, multifamily urban projects tend to start out with a point advantage over less dense, more remote projects.The NGBS project was a 282-unit, eight-story concrete and steel-framed building. Since I was brought in fairly late in the process (just before insulation, actually), there were challenges in obtaining the certification. Budgeted for fiberglass batt insulation, we spent many weeks training, inspecting, and retraining their installers to aim for Grade 1 installation quality.Now anyone who has read my recent post on batt insulation knows, I am not a fan of batts, regardless off what they are made out of, and my experience with recent projects has done nothing to change my opinion.A Recurring ProblemThe same problem came up recently on another project, this one 100 units of affordable duplex gut renovations in Macon, Georgia, home of The Allman Brothers and Little Richard, among notables. This project, known as Felton Homes is an interesting project, consisting of a neighborhood of slab-on-grade, solid brick 1940s era buildings that are being gutted, slightly expanded, and completely remodeled.All the homes are planned to be certified as Energy Star, EarthCraft House, and LEED for Homes. Although I submitted my proposal for LEED certification months before, I was not brought in to start the process until the first building was just about ready for insulation, which leads to the first concern.The existing brick walls are being coated with 1½” of high-density spray foam between furring strips on both the interior and exterior, and the roofs will have low-density spray foam applied to create conditioned attics — both very good decisions. But here’s the rub — for some reason, they specified fiberglass batt insulation in the new exterior wall sections, of which there are very few. And to add to the problem, these walls are framed with metal studs, providing an excellent thermal bridge in the walls.Our first site inspection led to removal of every batt (thankfully not too many in this case) to point out gaps and compressions, and extended discussions with the project team about proper installation. Of course, the cost to upgrade to a spray or blown-in product came it too high to change, but they are still in negotiations on that subject. This is an example where a generally very well designed and specified project could have been even better had energy and green building consultants brought in early in the design process rather than as an afterthought.Anticipating a problemOn yet another project, 18 affordable townhomes in Chattanooga, Tennessee, also scheduled for LEED certification by myself and Abe Kruger of Kruger Sustainability Group, we were brought in towards the end of the design process, just as documents were being released for bids.In our discussions with the architect, we expressed our concerns with batt insulation, but they made it into the specs. Now, as construction is just getting ready to start, we are in discussions with the contractor and his insulation subcontractor about Grade 1 installation. While this quality was written into the specifications, it appears that the installer doesn’t really understand what it takes to achieve it, we are advising them to anticipate having to remove and reinstall most, if not all, of the batts for the first few buildings unit they get it right, and we are urging them to upgrade to a blown or spray product. It will be interesting to see how this resolves itself.Wasted Breath and Good DecisionsSometimes I feel like I am wasting a lot of breath going over the issues with batt installation with project teams, but in the case of Felton Homes, the day after we left the job site, I was copied on an e-mail from the project manager, directing his supervisor to remove the batts and install spray foam on the first two units in order to get ready to hang drywall. When the added cost of the spray foam was weighed against schedule delays, it came out the winner. Once I clearly communicated to the project team how difficult it would be to get Grade 1 quality, they made a good field decision.Interestingly, Grade 1 insulation is not a specific requirement of LEED for Homes, while it is necessary to achieve EarthCraft House Platinum level certification.Overall, I am heartened by the amount of high-performance affordable housing currently under construction and renovation. I appreciate the opportunity to work on these projects, offer my expertise, and help make them as efficient as possible, all while working within budget constraints. I’m looking forward to seeing upcoming projects break ground, and, hopefully, work on many more in the future.Closing moteAn introduction is in order: Carl Seville, GBA’s Green Curmudgeon, joins Amy and Peter on the Green Communities blog. Welcome aboard, Carl!
Amid ambiguity over his meeting with Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, Punjab Chief Minister Captain Amarinder Singh said on Monday that they would meet in Amritsar on Wednesday.“Look forward to meeting Canadian Prime Minister @JustinTrudeau in Amritsar on Wednesday. I’m hopeful that this meeting will help strengthen the close Indo-Canadian business ties as well as the deep-rooted people-to-people relations between our two countries,” the Chief Minister wrote on Twitter.Deep roots“While trade and business will be the focus area, the two leaders are expected to discuss steps to intensify the close relations between the people of the two countries,” said a spokesperson of the Chief Minister’s Office.“Punjab has deep roots in Canada, where a large Punjabi community is settled, and has always striven to strengthen the connect,’’ Capt. Singh said in the statement.He pointed to the apology tendered by Mr. Trudeau in 2016 for the 1914 Komagata Maru incident, in which hundreds of Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus were denied entry to Canada and forced to return to India. This gesture underlined the depth of the bilateral relations, he said.
Allegations of match fixing have once again clouded the Pakistani cricket team after former wicketkeeper Zulqarnain Haider, who had fled to London alleging he had been threatened by bookies, demanded a formal probe into the team’s defeat to India in the ICC World Cup semi-final.Saying he was not surprised by Pakistan’s poor performance and defeat in Mohali on Wednesday, Haider questioned poor performances by several players including wicketkeeper Kamran Akmal. He alleged that fixing has been part of the Pakistani cricket culture.He accused the Akmal brothers of controlling the way the national team functions and alleged that they did not allow any player to settle down in the team.Speaking to Pakistani channel Dunya News from London, Haider said he had run away from the team hotel in Dubai after being harassed by Kamran’s younger brother Umar Akmal. Haider questioned why Kamran was still in the Pakistani team despite dropping a number of catches.Haider had fled from the hotel in Dubai, where the Pakistani team was staying, alleging threat from a fixer in November 2010.He alleged that some national selectors took money from players to select them. He urged the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB), government and the International Cricket Council (ICC) to look into the assets of the selectors to get to the bottom of the truth.
Money flowed like the water of a flooded river in Bangalore on Saturday as top players in international cricket were bought by the 10 franchisees of the Indian Premier League. The amount splurged in the 2011 auction trumped the millions spent in the inaugural sale in 2008.If $1.55 million (Rs 7.13 crore) was the biggest amount spent till last season – on Kevin Pietersen and Andrew Flintoff – the fourth edition of the league kicked off with franchisees spending over $2 million (Rs 9.2 crore) on players like Gautam Gambhir ($2.4 mn; Rs11.04 cr), Robin Uthappa and Yusuf Pathan ($2.1 mn; Rs 9.66 cr).A player like Andrew Symonds commanded $1.35 million earlier (Rs 6.21 crore at current rate), but the trend this time around is clear – if you have to splurge, splurge on the Indian players. What emerged from the auction on Saturday is that the team owners have become smarter. It’s not that they didn’t make sound business decisions earlier or that the deals struck for the new season were reasonable.But if one is allowed to spend up to $9 mn (Rs 41.4 crore), it makes sense to spend one’s millions on Indian stars than on international ones.There are a few reasons behind it. Firstly, the Indian team is one of the top sides in world cricket right now and most of the players are in red hot form. And more importantly, they will be available for the entire duration of the IPL, unlike players from England or the West Indies.The unavailability of foreign players in previous editions hurt the franchisees, who paid them huge sums but couldn’t play them for a large number of games. The team owners have become wiser and have taken the availability of foreign players into account while deciding on their buys.advertisementIt is for that reason that the top seven most expensive players are Indians and the highest amount commanded by a foreign players is $1.5 million (Rs6.9 cr) – for Mahela Jayawardene by Kochi. What the teams have learnt is that irrespective of the quality of the international players, it will be the Indian stars who will form the backbone of the sides. They are the ones who will attract most of the crowds and will be most sought after.Another trend that was visible is the loss in market value of the Australian players. With the aura surrounding the players from Down Under fast diminishing with a string of defeats over the past year, the Aussies are not so much in demand.However, the stock of the English players hasn’t risen correspondingly. It has, however, gotten more to do with the uncertainty over their availability. In the inaugural auction, a lot of money was spent on international players who did well in their domestic T20 tournaments. But this time, the moolah has been splurged only on proven international performers as the franchises would rather take chances with unknown local talent.But the fact remains that unheard of amounts have been spent on players for a one-anda- half month tournament. Even in this apparent madness, there is a method. And the method is to back the Indians.IPL 4 teams till now:KOLKATA KNIGHT RIDERS Previous squad Sourav Ganguly; Ajit Agarkar; Shane Bond; Ashok Dinda; Chris Gayle; Brad Hodge; Murali Kartik; Brendon McCullum; Angelo Mathews; Ajantha Mendis; Cheteshwar Pujara; Wriddhiman Saha; Owais Shah; Ishant SharmaCurrent squadGautam Gambhir (Rs 11.04 cr), Yusuf Pathan (Rs 9.66 cr), Jacques Kallis (Rs 5.06cr), Brad Haddin (Rs 1.49), Shakeeb Al Hasan (Rs 1.95cr); Brett Lee (Rs 1.84cr); Eoin Morgan (Rs 1.61 cr); Manoj Tiwary (Rs 2.18cr)ROYAL CHALLENGERs BANGALOREPrevious squad Anil Kumble; Mark Boucher; Rahul Dravid; Dillon du Preez; Shreevats Goswami; Jacques Kallis; Virat Kohli; Praveen Kumar; Abhimanyu Mithun; Kevin PieteRs en; Steven Smith; Dale Steyn; Ross Taylor; RobinCurrent squad Tillakaratne Dilshan (Rs 2.99 cr), Zaheer Khan (Rs 4.14 cr), AB de VillieRs (Rs 5.06 cr), Daniel Vettori (Rs 2.53 cr), Saurabh Tiwary (Rs 7.36 cr); Dirk Nannes (Rs 2.99 cr); Cheteshwar Pujara (Rs 3.22 cr); Virat Kohli (retained)RAJASTHAN ROYALSPrevious squad Shane Warne; Swapnil Asnodkar; Johan Botha; Abhishek Jhunjhunwala; Kamran Khan; Michael Lumb; Morne Morkel; Naman Ojha; Munaf Patel; Yusuf Pathan; Shaun Tait; Siddharth Trivedi; Adam Voges; Graeme Smith Uthappa; Cameron WhiteCurrent squad Ross Taylor (Rs 2.6 cr), Rahul Dravid (Rs 2.3 cr), Johan Botha (Rs 4.37 cr); Paul Collingwood (Rs 1.15 cr); Shane Warne (retained); Shane Watson (retained)MUMBAI INDIANSPrevious squad Sachin Tendulkar; Dwayne Bravo; Shikhar Dhawan; JP Duminy; Dilhara Fernando; Harbhajan Singh; Zaheer Khan; Dhawal Kulkarni; Lasith Malinga; Ali Murtaza; Abhishek Nayar; Kieron Pollard; Aditya Tare; Saurabh TiwaryCurrent squad Rohit Sharma (Rs 9.2 cr), Andrew Symonds (Rs 3.91 cr), David Jacobs (Rs 87 lakh), James Franklin (Rs 46 lakh); Sachin Tendulkar (retained); Harbhajan Singh (retained); Kieron Pollard (retained); Lasith Malinga (retained)advertisementDECCAN CHARGERSPrevious squad Adam Gilchrist; Anirudh Singh; Azhar Bilakhia; HeRs chelle Gibbs; Harmeet Singh; Ryan Harris; VVS Laxman; Mitchell MaRs h; Pragyan Ojha; Ravi Teja; Kemar Roach; Rohit Sharma; RP Singh; T Suman; Andrew SymondsCurrent squadKevin PieteRs en (Rs 2.99 cr), Cameron White (Rs 5.06 cr), Kumar Sangakkara (Rs 3.22 cr), JP Duminy (Rs 1.38 cr), Shikhar Dhawan (Rs 1.38 cr); Dale Steyn (Rs 5.52 cr); Amit Mishra (Rs 1.38 cr); Ishant Sharma (Rs 2.07 cr) Pragyan Ojha (Rs 2.3 cr)MUMBAI INDIANSPrevious squad Sachin Tendulkar; Dwayne Bravo; Shikhar Dhawan; JP Duminy; Dilhara Fernando; Harbhajan Singh; Zaheer Khan; Dhawal Kulkarni; Lasith Malinga; Ali Murtaza; Abhishek Nayar; Kieron Pollard; Aditya Tare; Saurabh TiwaryCurrent squad Rohit Sharma (Rs 9.2 cr), Andrew Symonds (Rs 3.91 cr), David Jacobs (Rs 87 lakh), James Franklin (Rs 46 lakh); Sachin Tendulkar (retained); Harbhajan Singh